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魏炳康,娄鑫,王贺新,等. 大量元素的缺乏对蓝莓营养生长和气体交换参数的影响[J]. 科学技术与工程, 2021, 21(4): 1288-1294.
Wei Bingkang,Lou Xin,Wang Hexin,et al.Effects of nutrient deficiency on the plant growth and gas exchange parameters of blueberries.[J].Science Technology and Engineering,2021,21(4):1288-1294.
大量元素的缺乏对蓝莓营养生长和气体交换参数的影响
Effects of nutrient deficiency on the plant growth and gas exchange parameters of blueberries.
投稿时间:2020-04-26  修订日期:2020-11-17
DOI:
中文关键词:  蓝莓  大量元素缺乏  营养生长  气体交换
英文关键词:Blueberry  Element deficiency  Vegetative growth  Gas exchange
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
           
作者单位
魏炳康 大连大学生命科学与技术学院
娄鑫 大连大学现代农业研究院
王贺新 大连大学现代农业研究院
李根柱 大连大学现代农业研究院
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探讨大量元素缺乏时蓝莓的营养生长和气体交换参数的变化特征,为蓝莓的营养施加和优质栽培提供理论依据。【方法】以三种蓝莓幼苗(蓝丰、绿宝石、公爵)为材料,采用水培法,在缺素处理开始时用美国产LI- 6400 型便携式光合作用测定仪测定叶片的气体交换参数,每2周测定一次直至缺素处理停止,共培养56天。并在缺素处理停止时测量幼苗的株高,基径和根体积。研究缺氮(-N)、缺磷(-P)、缺钾(-K)对三种蓝莓的营养生长和气体交换参数的影响。【结果】结果表明:(1)缺素显著影响了蓝莓的正常营养生长,具体表现为-N胁迫下三种蓝莓的株高显著低于对照组(CK);在-P胁迫下,只有蓝丰的株高和根体积,绿宝石的基径与对照组(CK)无显著差异;在-K胁迫下,只有蓝丰的根体积,绿宝石的基径、公爵株高和根体积与对照组(CK)无显著差异。(2)缺素培养时,三种蓝莓的净光合速率(Pn)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)均显著低于CK,而胞间二氧化碳浓度(Ci)却显著高于CK。并且Pn在-N胁迫0-14d时显著下降,在-P和-K胁迫0-14d时任能维持在较高的水平。【结论】缺素显著影响了蓝莓的正常营养生长,蓝莓的株高、基径和根体积增长受明显抑制。蓝莓的Pn对氮元素的缺乏反应敏感;并且缺素导致非气孔因素的光合作用受阻,二氧化碳同化效率降低,显著影响了蓝莓进行光合作用、呼吸作用和气体交换,抑制了其正常生长。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】Blueberry is one of the most important fruit trees all over the world and also the promising economic tree species cultivated in China. Blueberry was suggested to be planted in a high standard soil condtion, because the blueberry was sensitive to nutrient. Several blueberry cultivars have recently been introduced to soilless (aggregate) culture and these cultivars can blossom and bear fruits. However, the soilless culture and soil environments offten lack mineral nutrient or even without macroelement, and thus lack of nutrients has become the most significant abiotic strsee limiting the growth and production of blueberry. Meanwhile, previous studies also reported that the nutrient deficiency endurance ability vareied with different blueberry cultivars. In this study, we examined the effect of nutrient deficiency on the plant growth and gas exchange of blueberry cultivars with hydroponics controlling different nutrient deficiency so as to provide theory for the nutrition diagnosis and introduction of rational fertilization of blueberrys.【Method】Two-year-old seedlings of three highbush blueberry cultivars including “Bluecrop”, “Emerald”, and “Duke” were selected from field plots at Dalian University in northeast China and transplanted into black glass pots (1 liter volume) filled with the modified Hoagland nutrient solution and use sulfuric acid to adjust pH 4.5-5.5 (one plant per pot), and use air pump to ensure the oxygen content in the nutrient solution, and grown in a greenhouse with an average temperature of 25/20 ℃ (day/night) and about 1000 μmol.m-2.s-1 photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) in natural sun light, and 65% relative humidity for 30 d to establish canopy. During the establishment period, plants were cultivated in complete nutrient solution and exchanged once per week. We selected 20 healthy and uniform growth plants for each cultivar and then randomly determined as N deficiency (-N),P deficienc (-P), K deficiency (-K), or completed nutrient solution (CK), respectively (5 plants for each cultivar). Other environmental factors maintained throughout all the four treatments include light intensity (1000 μmol.m-2.s-1 PAR), photoperiod (light on at 8 am, and off at 8 pm). In order to minimize confounding effects of environmental variation between different site of greenhouse, we randomly changed the site of all pots every week. Plant were exchanged nutrient solution once weekly with individual nutrient solution throughout the growth period and frequent watering ensured nutrient solution volume and use sulfuric acid to adjust pH for root growth and avoid “bonsai effect”. The culture lasted 56 days. Gas exchange parameters were determined with a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system (LI-COR Inc. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). It was determined every 2 weeks throughout the growth period, and measured height, basal diameter and root volume at last. 【Result】 Our result showed that comparing with the control, -N decreased the growth of all cultivars. -P decreased the height of all cultivars but had little effect on the basal diameter and root volume of Bluecrop and the basal diameter of Emerald(P>0.05). -K decreased a part of morphological index of all cultivers but had little effect on the root volume of Bluecrop and Duke, and basal diameter of Emerald, and height of Duke. -N,-P and -K significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rates (Tr) and respiration rates (Rd) of all three blueberry cultivars, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) of all cultivars was significantly increased under all nutrient deficiency (P<0.05) compared with the start of the study. -N resulted in a more sharp Pn decrease than -P and –K, although their slope values varied across the three cultivars. 【Conclusion】 N, P, K deficiency decreased the growth rate and the efficiency of gas exchange on the leaves by non stomatal factors photosynthetic inhibition (CO2 assimilation significantly decreased) of the highbush blueberry. Among the three cultivars, the net growth was Duke > Bluecrop > Emerald under conventional condition. However, the ability of nutritional deficiency resistance of highbush blueberry was cultivar dependent, and thus resulted in the different responses responses to N, P, K deficiency in leaf gas exchange across cultivars. Bluecrop had higher ability of N, P deficiency resistance, and Duke had higher ability of K deficiency resistance. Our results may not only be helpful for further understanding the potential mechanisms of nutrients deficiency on grows of highbush blueberry from the leaf gas exchange traits, but also provide theory for the nutrition diagnosis and introduction of rational fertilization.
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